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Ark of the Covenant

Timelines and Events of the Hebrew Sojourn Superimposed on a
Historic Chronology of The Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt

The Genealogy of Christ according to Mathew Chapter 1:1-6
The Lineage of forefathers from 1715 - 921 bc
(All dates researched from the Dake's Annotated Bible Eighth Edition)

The Major Events and Life Spans of the Hebrew Patriarchs
during the Jewish Sojourn in Egypt

Note: This Chart is edited to be best viewed using a medium text size

 
1700bc>
1600bc>
1500bc>
1400bc>
1300bc>

<=1800 BC     
                   1715bc=> | ------------------Abraham-----------------------|<=1540BC
                                                                     1615BC=> | ------------------Isaac------------------------------- |
                                                                                                    1555BC=>| ---------------------Jacob------------- |
                                                                                                                                                  1467BC=>| -----------Judah-------1337BC>|<
                                                                                                                                                                                            | --------Pharez-------------- |
                                                                                                                                                                                                             |--------Esrom----- |
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           |---Aram--- |
                                                                                                                                                                      ----------------------------- ----1300bc=>|


  The Life Spans of the Hebrew Patriarchs
Dates derived from the Dakes Bible

             |<1715bc---Abraham --- 175yrs---- 1540bc >|  
                                                            |<=1640bc  God Calls Abraham to Leave Haran
                                                                |<=1630bc  Abraham Enters Egypt
                                                                      |<=1615-Isaac -180 yrs- 1435bc =>|
                                                                                          |<1555 -Jacob -147yrs- 1408bc>|
                                                                                                                       |<1484- Levi 137 yrs  1347bc >|
                                                                                                                           |<1474 Joseph 110yrs ->|
The hereditary line that leads to Joseph the adoptive Father of the Christ
                                                                                                                            
|<1467 -Judah 130yrs 1337bc>|
                                                                                                                        1430BC=>| Kobath 133yrs 1297bc>| 
                                                                        Joseph Sold Into Slavery=>|<= 1453   
                                                               Made governor of Egypt 1444bc =>|
                                                                                                                                     |<=1440 BC 7 yr Drought
                          Jacob enters Egypt with 70 family members 1438bc=>|---------------------------
                                                                                                      Aram dies 137 yrs of age=> |<=1377
                                                                                                               Joseph Dies<1364bc =>|----------
                                                                                                                     80 yrs>| Joseph Rules Egypt >|1374bc
                                                1630bc->|<---- Sojourn of the Hebrews begins ------------------------
for accounting purposes the Jewish Sojourn begins with the first visit of Abraham to Egypt
 
1700bc>
1600bc>
1500bc>
1400bc>
1300bc>

Historic Chronologies of the Pharaohs of Egypt
From the Records Of Manetho Commissioned By Ptolemy I in 300 bc
1640 - 1300 bc

17th Dynasty at Thebes
  :1640-----1550bc:

1700bc >
1600bc>
1500bc>
1400bc>
1300bc>
           Iny0tef V 1640-1630bc => |-- |<=Pharaoh who expelled Abraham From Egypt    Gen 12:10-20 ----------------------
 

New Kingdom 1550 - 1307bc
 18th Dynasty 1550 - 1307bc

1700bc>
1600bc>
1500bc>
1400bc>
1300bc>
                                         Amosis    1550-1525bc =>  - |----|------- -------------------------------------------
                                            Amenophis I -1525-1504bc => -|------ | -------------------------------------

                                                   - Thutmosis I    - 1504-1492bc => -|-| - -----|< Joseph enters Egypt 1453-

                                                              Thutmosis II   1492-1479 => |-----|----|< Joseph Governs >|< = 80yrs
1444>|< Joseph Governs >|<1364BC

                   Pharaoh of the Dreams"     Tuthmosis III    1479-1425bc => |--------|--- ------------------
                                                                                                              

                                                               Hatshepset 1479-1457bc => |----|____________-------
                                                                                      Amenophis II 1427-1393bc => |-----|------------------------
                                                                                              Tuthmosis IV   1393-1384bc => |-- | --------------------
                                                                                              Amemophis III 1384-1346bc   => |--- | ---|-----
                                 Was the Heretic Monotheistic Pharaoh Mentored By Joseph ? Joseph Dies >|< 1364BC
Akhenaten   1358-1340bc =>|----| --------
                                                                                                                    Smenkhkare 1342-1340bc =>|| -------
                                                                                                              Tutankhamun   1340-1331bc =>  |-|-----
                                                                                                                                         Ay 1331-1326bc =>| |--
                                                                                                                              Haremhab 1326-1307bc => |--|-

1700bc>
1600bc >
1500bc >
1400bc >
1300bc>
                                                                                                                    1444BC > |-Joseph Governs--|< 80yrs 

The Genealogy of Christ according to Mathew Chapter 1: 1-6
1300 - 921bc

The Sojourn, the Exodus and the Occupation of the Land Of Israel
Major Events In Jewish History and the Life Spans of the Patriarchs
after Exodus

1300bc>
1200bc>
1100bc>
1000bc>
900bc>
Hebrews sojourn ends with the Exodus >| <=1210bc --------End of  Solomon's Rule------ 921bc => | ------

      |-----------Aram -------------|
                                | - Aminadab --------|
                                                              |--Naasson---|
                                                                         | -- Salma -| -- Booz -| -- Obed ---|
                                                                                                                                  |--Jesse --| David |Solomon|

The Life Spans of the Patriarchs

      |----Aram-137yrs-1240bc----|
                                     |< 1290 Moses 120 yrs 1170bc >| ------------------------------------------------
                                                     | <=1250bc Moses goes into exile in Midian
                                                     |1250 Joshua 110yrs 1140bc|
---------------------------------------                     |Moses returns from exile to Egypt after the death of Ramesses The Great
                                             1210bc=>|<Exodus 243 yrs after Jacob entered Egypt 600,000 Hebrews exit Egypt
                                                                |Sinai 40 yrs|<-----140 yrs ------->| <= Joshua and the Judges --------
                                                                                     Saul Rules 40 yrs= >|1037-993| ------------
                                                                                                             David Rules 40 yrs=>|1000-961| ----------
                                                                                                                            Solomon Rules 40 yrs >|961-921|- -------

-------------- Sojourn Ends ---- =>| <- =Sinai =-> |< Joshua and the Judges >|< Saul>|< David >|Solomon|----

1300bc>
1200bc>
1100bc>
1000bc>
900bc>

 

"Ark Of The Covenant"

The Glory Days of the Ark During the Expansion of Israel, Moses leads the Exodus and Israel Conquers Canaan 300 yrs

 

1300bc>
1200bc>
1100bc>
1000bc>
900bc>
 Hebrews sojourn ends with the Exodus >| <=1210bc --------End of  Solomon's Rule------ 921bc => |  

Historic Chronologies of the Pharaohs of Egypt
From the Records Of Manetho Commissioned By Ptolemy I in 300B
1326-900bc

                           |---| <= 1326-1307bc Haremhab 

               
19th Dynasty 1307-1196bc

                                   | <= 1307-1306bc   Ramasses I                                                                         
                                   |---| <= 1306-1290bc Sethos I  ordered newborn Hebrews to be killed.
                                              Exodus Chpt.  1:15-21
                                          |--------------|<1290-1224bc Ramesses II The Great
                                               (Period of Great Oppression?)Exodus Chpt.  2:23-25
                                                                    |-| <= 1224-1210bc  Merneptah Pharaoh of the
                                                                                    Exodus? Exodus Chpts. 4-12
                                                                        || < 1210-1205bc Sethos II Period of political unrest
                                                                                and cultural Decline in Egypt
                                                                          || <= 1205-1198bc Siptah 
1300bc>
1200bc>
1100bc>
1000bc>
900b>


20th Dynasty 1196-1070bc

                                                                             | <= 1198-1196bc Tworse
                                                                              | <= 1196-1194bc Sehtnakhte    
                                                                               |-- -| <= 1194-1163bc Ramesses III
                                                                                       | -| <= 1163-1156bc Ramesses IV
                                                                                              |-| <= 1156-1151bc Ramesses V
                                                                                                   || <= 1151-1146bc Ramesses VI
                                                                                                    |- | <= 1146-1136bc Ramesses VII
                                                                                                        || <= 1136-1131bc Ramesses VIII
                                                                                                         |--| <= 1131-1112bc Ramesses IX
                                                                                                              |- | <= 1112-1100bc Ramesses X
                                                                                                                  |---| <= 1100-1070bc Ramesses XI 
 Hebrews sojourn ends with the Exodus >| <=1210bc --------End of  Solomon's Rule------ 921bc => |
1300bc>
1200bc>
1100bc>
1000bc>
900bc>


21st Dynasty  1070-945bc

                                                                          Smedes 1070-1044bc => |--------|
                                                                                Amenemnisu  1044-1040bc => |
                                                                                       Psusennes 1040-992bc  => |-- - -- -|
                                                                                                      Amenemope 993-984bc => |- |  
                                                                                                               Osorkon I 984-978bc => |--|
I Kings 2:1  The likely Egyptian Father-in-law of Solomon                  Siamun 978-959bc => |- |
                                                                                                                  Psusennes II 959-946bc  => |- |


22nd Dynasty  945-712bc

I Kings 14:25-26 Invaded Jerusalem the Fifth Year of Rehoboam              Shishak  946-915bc   => |------|    
                                                                                                                                        Takelot 915-900bc    => |- |
1300bc>
1200bc>
1100bc>
1000bc>
900bc>
Hebrews sojourn ends with the Exodus >| <=1210bc --------End of  Solomon's Rule------- 921bc => |


My training and education has been in engineering, material sciences and the arts as they are applied to bronze casting.  I have worked as an artist for forty years. This chronology was developed as a working tool to help me sort out the facts as they relate to the Jewish history behind the Ark of the Covenant.  There is a lot of interest in this subject and volumes have been written on the subject, I personally do not want to add to the confusion.

The chronological comparison's of the life sapns of the Jewish patriarchs and the known rulers of Egypt were made for my own edification and I am willing to look at different possible scenarios in order to put things into context. I consider this chronology a working tool, and nothing more. My focus was primarily on determining the artistic styles of Egyptian art just prior to the Exodus period and the art and language that would have occurred in the geographical area of the Nile Delta called Goshen.

It seems apparent that whatever training the artisans who made the Ark had would have received would have been in Egypt prior to the Exodus. It is my belief the design of the Ark Moses conceptualized would have been influenced by his experiences in Egypt.

My experiences in engineering and from working with clients to make objects to their specifications has lead me to believe that there must have been a blue print made to be given to the artisans. Unique designs seldom are built without first making visual references and there may have been a blue print made of the ark prior to its construction. I have specualted that by using the artistic conventions of the time and place the artisans put the Ark together I would come close to actual appearance of the Ark and that it may have looked like my drawings.

Because of the high interest level in the ark and little verisimilitude between the ark images I had seen and the historic time of the Exodus I determined to make an image that at least fit from an art history point of view the time a place of the artisans training.

What seems regrettable is that to my knowledge this minimal standard had never been used to make an illustration of the ark.

I have stated this project was for my own edification and I wanted to cut through much of what seemed to be myth and plainly misleading information about the appearance of the Ark. Of course until the original Ark is found we are left to speculate as to its appearance. This study is a exercise in reading between the lines of the Bible to flesh out the reality of the time and place of the Exodus Story.

Because the the time and place of the story was the Egyptian Delta in the 13th century BC only iconography from the Egyptian culture that existed on or before the chronological date of the Exodus story has been used to illustrate the Ark.

From my studies I concluded that the Jewish old testament histories seems to focus on the national heritage of the Hebrews and not on outside cultural influences.

Chester Comstock


Back to Ark Of the Covenant page

 

 

Bibliography:

Dates of the Kings of the New Kingdom thru- 22nd Dynasty

  1.   The Cambridge History of Africa: Volume I
                  Cambridge University Press

  2.   Akhenaten King Of Egypt
                 by Cyril Aldred
                 Thames and Hudson 1988
                 London, England

  3.   New Kingdom dating  derived from the Papyrus of Turin
                 First published in Egypt Circa 1300bc

  4.   The records of Josephus and the Early Christian Chronographers
                  Based on the records of Manetho
                  Commissioned by Ptolemy I 300bc

Genealogies and Dates of the important events Hebrew Patriarchs
are derived from information provided by:

  1.   The Dake's Annotated Reference Bible
                  by Finnis Jennings Dake
                  Dake Bible Sales, Inc. PO Box 173 Lawerenceville, Georgia 1961

   2.   The New American Bible
                 Translated from the original Languages with critical Use of All the Ancient Sources.
                  Published by Catholic Bible Press   1987

Names and Prenomens of Pharaohs
Questions of language are determined from varied sources:

  1.   A Hieroglyphic Dictionary, By E. A. Wallace Budge
                  Dover Publications, New York, New York,    1978
                  Replicated from  a volume first published in   1920

 2.   The records of Josephus and the Early Christian Chronographers
                 Based on the records of Manetho
                 Commissioned by Ptolemy I 300bc

 

 

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